The Industrial Wastewater Systems Handbook by Ralph L. Stephenson download in ePub, pdf, iPad
Toxic materials and heavy metal ions. Some manpower has to be allocated to the survey to install apparatus, and to report batch dumps, spills, etc. In addition, in-plant monitoring is essential in detecting changes in process waste load in sufficient time to allow correction before violations occur. To insure cognizance of product and material losses to the sewer.
When heavy metal salts are present, it usually is desirable to heat the sample to boiling and then carry out the ti'tration. The end point of the titration is determined with the indicator Erichrome Black T or calmagite. In any program, however, a thorough knowledge of the manufacturing facility, its operation, and the analytical techniques required for characterization of wastes are essential. Suspended solids are normally determined as an organic and an inorganic fraction. These particles are stopped by an ordinary sheet of paper.
It has the advantage, however, of being detected in extremely low concentrations by fluorometric techniques. The volatile suspended solids test is facilitated when glass fiber filters are used for the suspended solids determinations rather than a combustible filter material. If the production staff are trained to notify the waste treatment operators, prompt action may be taken to prevent serious consequences.
Manual procedures and non-automated methods are likewise presented. When the amounts of materials are known, it should be possible to establish a mass balance around each production process.
From this information the most promising areas for in-process abatement efforts can be determined. Interference is caused by excessive amounts of heavy metals and may be overcome by complexing the metals with cyanide. Regulatory agencies have established standards for the maximum allowable concentrations of radioactive materials in surface waters. Location of all pertinent waste sources and characterization of the wastes being discharged is necessary.
One plant may be allowed to discharge zinc below the toxic level, while another plant may be allowed to do the same with copper. Analysis of the wastestreams can often pinpoint malfunctions and result in prompt correction. Low concentrations of compounds such as lignins and tannins will impart color to natural waters and may be intensified when combined with other materials. Knowledge is obtained by waste surveys which provide material balances of the waste products.
While this manual represents the best judgement of the printing, it must be realized that subsequent developments may have improved the area of application of many techniques. However, it is necessary to guard against the so-called synergistic effect of certain materials.
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